Distillation & Fractionating Column
DISTILLATION & FRACTIONATING COLUMN
These fractionating column incorporate in any event, one unpredictable distillate fractionating column, which has boiled and been separately captured as a vapor condensed to a liquid, and essentially consistently a bottoms (or residuum) division, which is the most un-unstable buildup that has not been independently caught as a consolidated vapor.
When packing a column, you can choose to have either a random packed column or utilize structured packing. Using packing offers the benefits of lower pressure drops across the fractionating column when compared to plates or trays. Packed distillation columns allow gas to flow over the packing placed within the distillation head, while liquids tend to wet the surface of the packing material itself. This, in turn, allows mass transfer to take place.
Fractional distillation is essentially the same as simple distillation except that a fractionating column is placed between the boiling flask and the condenser and usually filled with glass or plastic beads.
Diameters of it vary and may range from about 65 cm in smaller towers to about 6 m and more in larger columns, even up to 15 m or 50 feet in some applications
There are two types of fractionating columns: tray column & packed column.
Fractional distillation separates a mixture into a number of different parts, called fractions. A tall fractionating column is fitted above the mixture, with several condensers coming off at different heights. The crude oil is evaporated and its vapors condense at different temperatures in the fractionating column.